Home | General | "Empididae" | Dolichopodidae | CNC
Types | Dolichopodidae
Checklist | Dolichopodidae Higher Classification
Empidoidea Higher Classification
Morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea
Bradley J. Sinclair and Jeffrey
The document offered here is a high resolution pdf version (7 MB) of
a paper published in 2006 by Sinclair and Cumming (Zootaxa 1180: 1-172,
424 figures) that revises the classification of the Empidoidea, based
on a cladistic analysis of the superfamily. The abstract is reprinted
A cladistic analysis of the Empidoidea and basal lineages of the Cyclorrhapha,
morphological characters, confirms the monophyly of both groups as well
as that of the
Eremoneura. The resulting final trees are used to revise the classification
of the Empidoidea to
include the following five families: Empididae, Hybotidae, Atelestidae
(including Nemedininae n.
subfam.), Brachystomatidae rev. stat. (comprising
the subfamilies Brachystomatinae,
Ceratomerinae and Trichopezinae), and Dolichopodidae s.lat. The
family Microphoridae is not
recognized, and the Microphorinae and Parathalassiinae are assigned to
the Dolichopodidae s.lat.
The Dolichopodidae s.str. includes 15 subfamilies that were previously
recognized within the
family. Within the Empidoidea we found support for Atelestidae as the
sister group to the
Hybotidae and for the monophyly of Parathalassiinae + Dolichopodidae s.str.
remains poorly defined and the genera Homalocnemis Philippi,
Anthepiscopus Becker, and Oreogeton Schiner are classified
as incertae sedis within the
Empidoidea. In addition, the following higher taxa are proposed: Symballophthalmini
Bicellariini n. tribe, Oedaleinae rev. stat.,
and Trichininae rev. stat., which are all assigned to
Hybotidae. The genus Sematopoda Collin is tentatively assigned
to Trichopezinae, and
Xanthodromia Saigusa is transferred from Hemerodromiinae to Brachystomatinae.
All morphological characters are extensively discussed and illustrated,
including details of the
antennae, mouthparts, internal thoracic structures, wings, and male and
female terminalia. In
addition, a key to families and unplaced genus groups of the Empidoidea
is provided. Feeding
habits are also discussed in terms of the empidoid ground plan condition.
This publication can be cited as follows:
Sinclair, B.J. and Cumming, J.M. The morphology, higher-level
phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea (Diptera). Zootaxa 1180:
Also available from: http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/taxa/Diptera.html.
First published on the Internet on 26 May, 2006