by Brian M. Wiegmann (Organizer)
Dipterists attending the ESA Annual Meeting in Nashville last December
gathered for the traditional Dipterists Informal Conference and
NADS business meeting. There were 17 attendees for the Monday evening
discussion followed by a mixer in the spacious hotel suite of Dr.
Don Webb. The meeting began in heartfelt recognition of the conspicuous
absence of our friend and colleague, Dr. Curtis Sabrosky. Curt passed
away due to heart failure at the age of 87 while on a trip to Finland
in 5 October 1997. Curt was a regular attendee at all Dipterological
gatherings, especially ESA informal conferences. Curt played an
active role throughout his career in both ESA and NADS activities;
at Curt's passing we honor and admire his productivity and service
to the scientific community - his career marks a milestone in the
development of the science of Dipterology. We wish our careers could
be as enjoyable, long, and productive into our old age as Curt's
General announcements were first on the agenda after roundtable
introductions. First, highlights of last year's NADS field meeting
in Rincon Georgia (May 1997) were described. Next, potential sites
for the next NADS field meeting (1999) were announced. Two field
sites are under consideration. The first, near Boone, North Carolina,
is the B.H. Corpening Forestry Training Facility, Crossnore NC.
This facility is located near excellent Appalachian and Great Smokey
Mountain collecting sites in Western North Carolina, Tennessee,
and Southern Virginia. The facility has sleeping accommodations
for up to 86 people, a cafeteria serving meals, and a very affordable
price --$15 per night lodging, $21 per day for 3 meals. Brian Wiegmann
is exploring this site as one option. Alternative sites in Utah
and the Western US are being explored by Riley Nelson, Univ. of
Texas, Austin. A site should be agreed on soon to insure availability.
Finally, attendees were reminded of important deadlines for the
Fourth International Congress of Dipterology.
Following these announcements, Mike Irwin and Darlene Judd each
summarized the objectives and current progress of the two NSF-PEET
projects focusing on Diptera. Irwin described his project, "Towards
a World Monograph of the Therevidae", that involves training
5 graduate students in the labs of Irwin, Yeates, and Wiegmann.
Expeditions to important therevid habitats around the globe have
been conducted over the last three years, and a comprehensive specimen
and taxonomic database has been constructed. Darlene Judd summarized
the Smithsonian-based PEET project, "Monographic research in
the Diptera". This project targets at least three understudied
groups of flies, Tanyderidae, Rhagionidae, and Aulacigastridae.
Darlene is currently building a worldwide revision of tanyderids,
and two new University of Maryland graduate students will conduct
research on rhagionids and aulacigastrids. Darlene will soon move
to Oregon State University to take a faculty position in the Department
of Entomology where she will continue her tanyderid research (see
Two informal presentations followed. Peter Adler, Clemson University,
presented details of his large collaborative project with Doug Currie
and Monty Wood on North American black flies, entitled "The
Black Flies of North America". This beautifully illustrated
volume will include all life stages, taxonomic synopses, keys, and
detailed geographic distributions of North American taxa. The writing
should be completed this year and will be published by Cornell University
Press. This book will surely be the definitive reference on North
American blackflies for years to come.
David Yeates, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia presented
work he and an honours student, Chris Palmer, have recently conducted
on the biology and systematics of the enigmatic Australian genus
Exeretonevra. Chris reared the previously unknown larva of Exeretonevra
from eggs laid by gravid females and also discovered the mature
larvae in the soil. Morphology of the larvae and a reexamination
of adult characteristics indicates that the genus clearly belongs
in the Xylophagidae. Chris and David are currently preparing a publication
containing details of their findings.
Next year's ESA meeting will be held in Las Vegas, Nevada, 8-12
Nov. 1998. Stephen Gaimari, Department of Entomology, University
of Illinois, Urbana- Champaign will organize next years Dipterists
Informal Conference, contact him by email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
See the October, 1997 issue of Fly Times, or visit http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/diptcong.html
directly, for pertinent information.
The 1998 Biting Fly Workshop will be held June 13-15, 1998. See
the October, 1997 issue of the Fly Times for further information.
Competition for the 1998 Orkin Livestock Entomology Award was recently
announced by the sponsor, Orkin Agribusiness Services. This annual
award of $1,500 will be given to a U.S. or Canadian Ph.D. candidate
engaged in research in livestock entomology that shows potential
benefit or significant contribution to integrated pest management.
The award will be presented to the recipient at the 1998 Livestock
Insect Workers Conference, to be held in July in Alberta, Canada.
Deadline for submission of application materials is May 1, 1998.
For more information and to download an application form, visit
Orkin Agribusiness Services' Web site at http://www.orkin-ag.com/award1.html
Larry Rufledt, Director of Operations,
Orkin Agribusiness Services,
2702 International Lane, Suite 202,
Madison, WI 53791-8271, USA.
608-244-1334; FAX 608-244-1477
by Peter Adler, Steve Marshall and Chris Thompson
All-Taxa-Biodiversity-Inventory (ATBI) was an idea generated by
Dan Janzen and developed at a NSF workshop at University of Pennsylvania
(16 April 1993, see Science 30 April 1993, p. 620). The first ATBI
was shortly thereafter proposed for the Guanacaste Conservation
Area in Costa Rica. While more than 20 millions dollars were raised
for this ACG ATBI, the political climate was not quite right and
that effort died (19 Nov 1996, see Science 9 May 1997, p. 893).
The following spring President Clinton visited Costa Rica, taking
with him a number of US policy makers. Among those were US National
Park people who met with their Costa Rican counterparts. The seed
of an ATBI was passed and last December was firmly planted in the
Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We had a general workshop to
discuss the desirability and feasibility of a GSMNP ATBI (Science
12 Dec 1997, p. 1871). John Pickering of University of Georgia provided
the initial scientific leadership, but all the activists were there.
So, the conclusion was never in doubt, the Americans would do the
first ATBI. (We use the term Americans broadly as we do for NADS
to include all interested in the Nearctic fauna, etc.). Since then
there has been much additional planning. For example, the idea was
presented to the President at a meeting of the Office of Science
and Technology Policy at the Old Executive Office Building on 17
February and an appropriate non-profit corporation has been set
up to handlethe finances, etc. The first public announcement will
be on 24 April at the park.
This ATBI effort, however, will differ significantly from its Costa
Rican predecessor as indicated by its official banner- Discover
Life in America. While the scientific effort to discover, name,
describe, etc., all living organisms in a large diverse area, remains
the CORE activity, much more emphasis is being placed on education
and outreach. This is the opportunity to let all Americans know
how little is truly known of the important critters which sustain
their planet, to educate them on the critical tasks and contributions
of systematic biology, to encourage them to increase their support
($$$) for our efforts, etc. And this effort will also be a showcase
for demonstrating new technologies for the dissemination of biosystematic
information. So do not despair when the publicity you see seems
to speak of other things for if these other efforts succeed, then
we will see the support we need, etc.
Where are the dipterists in all this? We want to be ready to be
the first megadiverse taxon to get going, to generate significant
products, etc. And for us, this also represents an opportunity to
return focus to some of our large-scale projects, like the Checklist
of Nearctic Diptera and Flies of Nearctic Region as well as our
major monographic efforts such as the Black flies of North America.
We see connecting our research proposals to this effort may well
be very helpful. (For the US readers, we would remind them
that the new (nominated) head of NSF, Rita Colwell, is not only
the first biologist to head this funding agency but was one of those
who attend that first ATBI workshop in Philadelphia.) We are planning
a small organizational meeting for early this summer in GSMNP to
set up our Taxonomic Working Group
(TWIG), seeking funding, set goals, etc., so we can have a full
meeting of the NADS community in 1999. We suggest that the 1999
field meeting of NADS use GSMNP as its site. We will set up a LIST-SERVE
for this effort and make a place for it on our Diptera WWW site
The general site for *Discover Life in America* is currently at
University of Georgia (http://dial.pick.uga.edu/).
by Greg Ballmer and Rudi Mattoni
Our work with Diptera has largely been focused on conservation
issues with the recently federally listed endangered species Rhaphiomidas
terminatus abdominalis (Mydidae), the only fly recognized under
the Endangered Species Act. A major problem with conservation planning
for the fly, however, is our almost complete ignorance of its early
stages. Not long after the fly was discovered on remnant dune fragments
in the towns of Colton and Rialto in San Bernardino County, California,
by Rick Rogers in the mid 1980's, several of us turned our attention
to determination of its life history. Rogers and Mattoni (1993)
summarized what was known of Rhaphiomidas life histories
to that time. Little more has been added to what amounts as not
much. Our early stage observations have been sporadic because of
the short adult flight period. When we can get in the field at appropriate
times, we use any species available (Rhaphiomidas work has
not been a mainstream project, as most of you can appreciate). Although
females will oviposit in captivity, success is variable, and fecundity
low. We only once obtained more than 20 eggs from a confined female.
In the field the only consistent observations are that oviposition
takes place between 1400 and 1600 hours in the shade of larger plants
on the sites. No other correlations were noted, including plant
species specificity. Shade seems the key factor here. Once eggs
were obtained, we have had no success in rearing the resultant larvae.
Neonate larvae are quite large, 4-6 mm long. They have small mouth
hooks, but the mouthparts do not appear suitable for carnivory,
which we had always assumed from what has been reported from other
Mydids and for the possibly related genus Apiocera. In our
prior attempts to feed them, we have tried several native and agricultural
roots, small beetle larvae screened from sites, Drosophila,
larvae, immature sand roaches, and several kinds of synthetic diets
including both bean based and with supplemented comminuted ant brood.
None were accepted. The first instar larvae always remain above
the sand. When eggs are left beneath, or larvae are covered by sand,
the larvae always bore up to the surface and move about. Larvae
never attempt to burrow. From our earliest work, we found this behavior
inconsistent with the assumption of a fossorial predator. This fall
Ballmer obtained a few larvae of Rhaphiomidas trochilus.
Struck again by the weak mouthpart anatomy for such a massive neonate
larva, he attempted feeding by micropipette using synthetic hemolymph.
One larva seemed to imbibe some fluid and simultaneously excreted
a droplet. The larva subsequently molted, but within a few days,
and unsuccessful further feeding attempts, died. In another trial
Mattoni noted a few R. parkeri that lived ten days longer
than controls on fresh daily synthetic diet. No actual feeding as
observed, however, and the larvae never remained near the food cubes
that had been placed on their sand substrate. An observation by
Ballmer this past spring may provide a relevant insight into the
life history of giant flower-loving flies. After abandoning feeding
attempts, a neonate R. parkeri larva was placed within the
foraging range of a colony of the harvester ant Messor sp.
After a few minutes, a worker picked up the larva and took it at
once into the ant-nest. Although the larva was not attacked or bitten,
there was no evidence of drumming or other investigative activities
by the ant on the larva. The above evidence has led us to speculate
that Rhaphiomidas are obligatory myrmecophiles which have
adapted to becoming ant tended from the first instar. We hypothesize
that upon hatching, neonates are taken into the ant colony and there
are fed and tended as brood, probably initially fed regurgitated
material. We now have no suggestion of whether this feeding pattern
continues as the larvae mature, or if the now larger larvae feed
directly on the colony resources or on the brood itself. When the
Rhaphiomidias larvae are full grown, they likely have one hundred
times the mass of these hypothesized hosts. If our general myrmecophile
hypothesis is not rejected, the pathway of follow-up questions is
fertile with dichotomies. We will conduct tests with the first flying
species this spring and will hopefully be back with preliminary
results for the next Fly Times. The effort may be challenging,
as our sole reference to Messor colonies tells the story
digging to an 11 ft depth in sand and not finding brood chambers.
Are there any miners out there who would like to help? Your comments,
suggestions, etc. would be welcome. If our hypothesis is correct
this will be quite a story.
General background: While we were involved with biological
studies, the massive destruction of the little remaining Delhi Sands
habitat continued unabated. As a consequence of our concerns, but
largely through the efforts of Ballmer, the environmental community
was mobilized. On September 23, 1993, after acrimonious proceedings,
the Fish and Wildlife Service listed Delhi Sand giant flower-loving
fly as endangered and conferred some protection on the animal. While
attempting to preserve the species we have become heavily involved
in policy matters involving small town politics, national politics,
money, ethics, PR, polemics with "consultants," etc. To
this end we have placed the emphasis of our plan on saving a core
habitat of some 300 contiguous acres, land representing less than
1% of the historic 40,000 acres of the inland Delhi Sands. If our
hypothesis is correct, the fly story will provide a great rejoinder
to the maggots for jobs sector.
by Chris Thompson
Hollman-Schirmacher collected on the North Island of New Zealand
in January. Ray Gagne was off in Australia for a few weeks in Jaunary
also. Allen Norrbom and Lynn Carroll did a fruit fly workshop in
Mexico in February and I stayed home trying to take care of urgent
We are about 90% complete with the species inventory of the USNM,
with some 50,464 species represented at last count. The actual number
will probably be around 55,000, about 1/2 the species recorded worldwide.
By the time Fly Times hits the street, I should have the
files updated at our WWW site. Our Diptera
WWW was selected by Science
News Online (the WWW version of Science News) for
its scientific safari feature. So, we must be doing something right!
by John O. Stireman III
I am a graduate student at the University of Arizona in Tucson.
I have developed a keen interest in the biology of tachinid flies,
especially in their evolutionary and ecological interactions with
host species. My thesis research is focused on the ecological and
evolutionary determinants of host range in the Tachinidae, and how
host range and host location strategies are shaped by one another.
I am taking a multidisciplinary approach toward understanding this
relationship by examining the behavior of individual flies, the
patterns of parasitism in a local lepidopteran community, and the
evolutionary patterns of host range in a subgroup of the Tachinidae.
I have begun conducting behavioral assays with two local species
(Exorista mella and Carcelia reclinata) to examine
how they locate their shared host, the arctiid moth Grammia geneura.
I have also sampled the lepidopteran community at several sites
in mesquite-oak grassland habitats here in southern Arizona, and
I am building a tachinid-host database that includes information
concerning parasitism rate, what the parasitized hosts feed upon,
their density, microhabitat, and other ecological variables. Preliminary
examination of this data indicates that ecological factors such
as microhabitat of the host profoundly influence their susceptibility
to various tachinid species.
At a larger scale, I plan to examine the evolution of characters
concerning host range, host location, and reproductive strategies
within a subset of the macrotype Goniinae. This will be accomplished
by reconstructing the evolutionary relationships of included genera
using molecular and perhaps genitalic characters. The boundaries
of the group to be examined must be determined by a preliminary
analysis due to the lack of phylogenetic resolution within the Goniinae.
I plan to focus on the tribes Exoristiini, Winthemiini, and/or Eryciini,
with perhaps 20-25 taxa total to reconstruct a somewhat skeletal
phylogeny. Though I can collect many specimens locally for this
analysis, there are many taxa that should be included that I probably
will not find, or do not exist locally. I would greatly appreciate
any donations of specimens within these groups from those of you
who collect or rear tachinids. Specimens in alcohol (100%) are best
suited for DNA extraction and amplification, though I have successfully
extracted usable DNA from dried, pinned specimens. If you are interested
in donating any specimens please contact me (Stireman@u.arizona.edu,
or see directory for address). It is my hope that this preliminary
phylogenetic reconstruction will not only allow me to examine patterns
of character evolution, but also provide a framework for tachinid
systematists to work with, and improve upon.
by Stephanie Boucher and Terry Wheeler
Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University
It is no secret that the Yukon Territory has a unique insect fauna.
The recent publication of "The Insects of the Yukon" has
called attention to the diverse fauna of this region, and its glacial
and postglacial history (for more information on this book see the
Biological Survey of Canada's Web site at http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/esc.hp/bschome.htm).
Most people who collect in the Yukon are attracted by the "typical"
habitats of Beringia - the tundra up the Dempster highway, the mountains
around Kluane National Park, the extensive peatlands, rivers and
lakes, etc., but there are a lot of smaller, unusual and often overlooked
habitats in the Yukon with their own particular Diptera fauna. We
spent seven weeks in the Yukon in the summer of 1997 in search of
the flies in some of these habitats.
Stephanie's goal was the Artemisia-grassland community found on
warm south-facing slopes in several locations in the southern Yukon.
This community of xeric-adapted plants occurs in relict patches
north of the prairies in the Peace River valley of Alberta, northern
British Columbia, the southern and central Yukon and central Alaska.
These sage-grass communities may be a relict of the widespread arctic
steppe of Beringia, or they may be disjuncts of southern prairie
ecosystems that expanded their range northward into this region
during the Hypsithermal warming interval. What is potentially interesting
to dipterists is that these slopes contain a few species of insects
that are endemic to the region as well as a number of species with
some interesting disjunct distributions. Stephanie's M.Sc. project
involves a faunal inventory of the Brachycera of these slopes and
an analysis of their zoogeographic affinities.
We flew to Edmonton (it's much cheaper than flying to Whitehorse)
in late May and rented a car for the drive to the Yukon (an unlimited
mileage rental deal is very important on a trip like this; we clocked
almost 15,000 kilometers). In addition to the cheaper flight, driving
to the Yukon from Edmonton gave us the opportunity to collect at
some interesting spots along the way in northern Alberta and British
Columbia. Three days of driving/collecting got us into the Yukon
where the search for good sites started. It was not difficult to
find suitable Artemisia-grassland sites - they are quite numerous
in the Yukon River valley along the Alaska and Klondike highways
and many decent sites are accessible from the road. Proximity to
the highways is also good because the sight of two entomologists
running around with sweep nets on a 45 degree slope gives the Winnebago
drivers some entertainment on their way to Dawson. Six primary sites
were chosen for a survey using pan traps and sweep net collecting.
Three were located on the Klondike highway south of Carmacks, one
on the Alaska Highway west of Whitehorse near the Takhini River,
one at the north end of Little Atlin Lake just south of Jakes Corner
(cheapest gas in the Yukon, by the way) and one just outside of
Carcross at Nares Lake. We collected in a few other similar sites
on an irregular basis. To be honest, these sites look pretty barren,
dry and windswept and at first we didn't expect a lot of diversity
or abundance in the Brachycera. We were wrong. In the first season,
we collected about 16,000 specimens of Brachycera from the study
sites, representing 29 families. The species identifications are
still going on but we estimate that there are at least 150 species.
The most abundant family by far was the Chamaemyiidae (about 45%
of all the specimens collected) followed by the Chloropidae, which
is probably the most diverse family with almost 30 species identified
to date. Dolichopodidae, Tephritidae, Agromyzidae, and Pipunculidae
were also quite abundant, with a lot of species diversity in the
last three families. The phytophagous families and genera seem to
be the most diverse, and are showing the most interesting geographic
distributions. Saprophagous groups like Sphaeroceridae, Carnidae,
Phoridae and Ephydridae were not as abundant or diverse as in many
other habitats and certainly less common than we expected. This
probably has a lot to do with the fact that these slopes are so
dry that decaying organic material isn't a major food source. Dead
things just seem to dry up and blow away.
Saprophagous flies were more common in the sites sought out by
Terry. His goals were more broad-ranging but he was mainly driven
by a desire to build up the Lyman Museum's small collection of phytophagous
and saprophagous acalyptrates, especially Chloropidae. The northwest
Nearctic is turning out to be an interesting area for chloropid
zoogeography and existing collections are not that rich in material
from the region. That situation has now been at least partially
rectified and we are in the process of sorting and mounting tens
of thousands of specimens from habitats as varied as the Carcross
"desert", warm springs, beach dunes, river margins, pine
forests, salt flats, hilltops, peatlands, tree trunks and small
All in all the Yukon turned out to be an excellent place to collect.
The Diptera diversity is higher than many people realize and there
are many undescribed and unrecorded surprises turning up as we deal
with the material. There are a lot of excellent collecting sites
within a short walk of the highway, but we had very few problems
with disturbance of our traps. Other than a few traps stepped on
by inconsiderate large grazing mammals, we only lost two traps to
human activity - a paranoid local resident thought that his evil
neighbours were trying to poison his dogs and our yellow pans were
arrested by the RCMP.
A real advantage of summer collecting in the Yukon is that it stays
light until well after 11:00 p.m. in June, quite convenient for
evening pinning, sorting trap residues and beer drinking (although
we must admit that the expedition team discovered Okanagan Black
Cherry Cider quite early in the trip, which, although it seemed
at first too much like a "girl drink", was found to be
an acceptable Dipterological beverage when taken in moderate quantities).
Restricting a lot of our collecting activities to drier, windswept
habitats had the added advantage of keeping us away from the mosquitoes
and blackflies for much of the trip.
Some advice for those planning a trip: buy a copy of The Milepost
- it is an indispensable guide to side roads, kilometre markings,
campgrounds, showers, coffee, cinnamon buns, and it makes good reading
for rainy days. Whitehorse has all the necessities for a long term
stay - groceries, hardware, mechanics (including windshield replacement),
restaurants (all you can eat Mondays at Pizza Hut in 1997!), pharmacies,
laundry, hotels, some surprisingly good bookstores and an odd assortment
of bars. As with so many other parts of the world now, paperwork
is required for scientific fieldwork in the Yukon but this is minimal:
a Scientists and Explorers License is required for any fieldwork.
Applications can be obtained from The Director, Heritage Branch,
Department of Tourism, Government of the Yukon, Box 2703, Whitehorse,
YT, Y1A 2C6 Canada (allow three months to process the paperwork).
Additional paperwork is required for work in National Parks, reserves
and certain areas under jurisdiction of First Nations. The application
package for the Scientists and Explorers License includes a Guidebook
on Scientific Research in the Yukon that lists all the relevant
requirements, contacts and quite a bit of useful extra information
on facilities and resources (if only all places in the world were
We've never met anyone who collected in the Yukon once and didn't
want to go back. We are no different - we're headed north again
this summer. There are some spots we never got around to last year.
by Darlene Judd
Darlene Judd, Norm Woodley and Andrew Brower travelled to Chile
in January/February in search of tanyderids. The larval life stage
was not known for the three monotypic genera occurring in southern
Chile. But once again, our success at locating these rare flies
has exceeded our expectations. Larvae for two of the species were
collected and in addition, we were able to triple the world's collection
of adults for Araucoderus gloriosus. We had hoped to obtain
adult specimens of Tanyderus pictus (see
SEL web page) which were last collected in 1954. However, only
second instar larvae were found. We also visited the insect collections
at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural in Santiago in hope of
finding the Philippi holotype of T. pictus. Unfortunately,
the holotype no longer appears to exist. We have tentatively scheduled
a second collecting trip for December 1998.
by Claudio Jose Barros de Carvalho
Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brasil
The Directory of South American Dipterists <http://zoo.bio.ufpr.br/diptera/south/index.html>
is now available. Please visit it!
Darlene Judd has recently accepted a tenure-track position in Diptera
Systematics in the Department of Entomology at Oregon State University.
Darlene will join Andy Brower (husband and Lepidopterist) as the
second systematist hired by the department in the academic year
of 1997-98. She will remain active on the Monography of the Diptera
project (NSF-PEET, Mathis & Judd) based at the Smithsonian through
her research on tanyderids. However she plans to begin her duties
(research, teaching, and collections) at OSU on 1 July 1998. After
June 1 all correspondence should be sent to: Department of Entomology,
2046 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331-2907,
USA; email: email@example.com,
Phone: 541-737-4733, and FAX: 541-7373643.
Sonja Scheffer, from Stony Brook and NC State University, has accepted
the SEL molecular position in Beltsville, MD, starting May 26, 1998.
She will be developing a research program on the Agromyzidae, and
working with SEL staff on various collaborative projects.
by Doug A. Craig
I retired as of the 1st of July 1997 and started two years of half
time teaching. I had completed 31 years at the University of Alberta
and decided enough was enough. However, little has changed as far
as my research is concerned. I'll be found pupated one day in front
of my beloved computer and/or microscope. Or failing that I'll fall
down a cascade in Tahiti. I plan to spend a fair amount of time
there in the next few years to try and finish up the biogeography
of the Polynesian Black Flies. As you may have seen in the June
issue of Canadian Journal of Zoology, I essentially finished up
the taxonomic revision of the darling little things. Indeed I am
gearing up to do the morphological phylogeny right now. Doug Currie
is going to help me with the more technical bits. Hawaiian Drosophila
by J. Richard Vockeroth
A great loss was experienced by the family, friends and colleagues
of Herb Teskey, who died after a long illness. He was a kind, generous,
unassuming man; because of these qualities his scientific contributions
were perhaps somewhat underrated. I think his character was best
described by his son and daughter in a memorial tribute: "Dad
epitomized honesty, integrity and humility. He was a gentleman through
and through .... He believed that if a job was worth doing, it was
worth doing well." The famous Canadian author W.O. Mitchell,
who had been one of Herb's teachers, said to one of his children
"Your Dad never thought much of his own abilities and would
always undersell himself, but your Dad had a tremendous amount to
offer." Herb was a highly competent and very productive entomologist
but had also many other interests. First among these was his family
- his wife Barbara, his two children, and his grandchildren, to
whom he was completely devoted. He was an excellent athlete and
had won many awards in basketball, baseball and curling. He was
a fine craftsman, and many beautiful furniture pieces were created
in his workshop. He had a great interest in geography and maps -
sadly, his hope of extensive travel after his retirement was reduced
by his poor health to one trip to Europe with his wife.
Herb was born in Grand Prairie, Alberta in 1928. His degrees were
B. Sc., Alberta, 1951; M.S.A., Toronto, 1955; Ph.D., Cornell, 1967.
From 1951 until 1963 he studied the face fly and warble flies at
the Agriculture Canada Veterinary Entomology Laboratory in Guelph,
Ontario; when that lab closed he went to Cornell and then to the
Entomology Research Institute in Ottawa. The subject of his thesis
was a study of the larval taxonomy of North American Tabanidae -
all subsequent work owes much to this classic contribution. These
larvae remained his primary interest, but his scope broadened to
include all immature Diptera, especially of families previously
unknown in these stages. His other major contributions were keys
to the families, and general morphological descriptions, of the
larvae and pupae in the Manual of Nearctic Diptera; a comprehensive
study of larvae of Diptera associated with trees (1976); and, after
his retirement in 1987, a beautifully illustrated handbook for the
identification of the 145 species of Tabanidae known to occur in
the Canada and Alaska (1990).
I agree with W.O. Mitchell that Herb "would always undersell
himself". However, I think at most, only one or two other recent
Dipterists have contributed as much as did Herb to our knowledge
of immature flies. He will be missed.
by Paul H. Arnaud
Janice Marie Gillespie, Economic Entomologist and Diptera Taxonomist,
was born in Phoenix, Arizona, on October 24, 1945, and died of complications
of lung cancer at Scottsdale, Arizona, on March 14, 1997. As Johnson
(1997) has written "She is fondly remembered for her intelligence,
her energy, and her exuberance for life." Janice was one of
five children of George Edward Gillespie ((1913-1952) and Elainey
Morris Gillespie. She had a fraternal twin Daniel, a brother Gary,
and two sisters, Rita Carlson and Sandra Lee Hunter (deceased 1993).
In 1964 Janice enrolled at Arizona State University, Tempe, and
her first class in General Entomology decided her future graduate
major. It was necessary that she personally finance the cost of
all of her higher education by working and with scholarships. With
summer evening sessions taken in 1965 and 1966 at Phoenix Junior
College, Janice was able to receive a B.S. degree in Zoology from
ASU in 1967. Janice then majored in Entomology, with a minor in
Zoology, at the University of Idaho, Moscow, under the direction
of Dr. William F. Barr, receiving her M.S. degree in 1970, with
the thesis "Bionomics of Insects Associated with a North Idaho
Pond." Her doctorate thesis entitled "A Biosystematic
Study of Idaho Chironomini (Diptera: Chironomidae)," 395 pages,
was completed in 1974. It was in this period that she pioneered
the study of western American larval Thaumaleidae and completed
studies that were delayed in publication by circumstances beyond
Janice had a special interest in aquatic insects, and her collection
of these, numbering about 10,000 specimens (according to Membership
Record with the Pacific Coast Entomological Society), are deposited
in the collections of the William F. Barr Entomological Museum,
University of Idaho (Chironomidae and other aquatic insects), and
the Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences (Thaumaleidae).
Collections were made primarily in western North America and secondarily
Following the completion of her doctorate, Janice was employed
as an Agriculturist in Laboratory Research with The American Cyanamid
Company, in Princeton, New Jersey. After several years she then
worked for Boyle-Midway, in Phoenix, Arizona, as she preferred outdoor
field work. From 1991-1996 Janice was Vice-President in charge of
Research for Consep Membranes, Inc., of Bend, Oregon, in the use
of pheromones in insect control.
In March, 1996, Janice was diagnosed with lung cancer, and after
treatment her health improved sufficiently that she was able to
make a tour of Egypt and Israel from January 31 to February 23,
1997, with a friend, Dr. Janet Moore, of Waldport, Oregon. Janice
died less than a month later, at Scottsdale, in her 51st year. Janice
had smoked extensively, but had given up smoking in the last decade
of her life. She is buried at Paradise Valley Memorial Garden Cemetery
in Scottsdale. Janice is survived by her mother, Elainey Wren, two
brothers, and one sister, and three nephews and one great nephew
and one great niece.
Bibliography of Taxonomic Publications of Janice M. Gillespie
1973. The larva and pupa of the predaceous water beetle, Hygrotus
sayi (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Proceedings of the Biological
Society of Washington, 86(12):143-151, figures 1-11. (by Paul
J. Spangler and Janice M. Gillespie).
1975. Systematic Paleontology. Pages 840, 843, plate 1 (with
figures 2-5). In Charles J. Smiley, Jane Gray, and L. Maurice
Huggins, Preservation of Miocene fossils in unoxidized lake deposits,
Clarkia, Idaho; with a section on fossil Insects by W. F. Barr and
J. M. Gillespie. Journal of Paleontology, 49(5):833-844,
plates 1-4. (by William F. Barr and Janice M. Gillespie).
1976. Insect associates of a northern Idaho farm pond. Pages 9-18.
In William F. Barr (Editor), 50 year Anniversary Publication,
Department of Entomology, University of Idaho. Pages vii + 138.
1994. Taxonomy and biology of the immature stages of species of
Thaumalea occurring in Idaho and California (Diptera: Thaumaleidae).
Myia, 5:153-193, figures A-B, 1-50. (by Janice M. Gillespie,
William F. Barr, and Steven T. Elliott).
1994. External structure of larval Thaumalea buckae Arnaud
and Boussy (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Myia, 5:195-201, figures
1-4. (by Ian A. Boussy, Janice M. Gillespie, and Paul H. Arnaud,
[Johnson, James B.] 1997. [Passages; Obituaries, Retirements, Transitions.]
Janice M. Gillespie. Aldrich Entomology Club Newsletter,
17:18-19, 1 figure.
I am greatly indebted to Dr. William F. Barr, University of Idaho,
Moscow; Mrs. Rita Carlson, Scottsdale; Mr. Lawrence W. Currie and
Mr. Vincent F. Lee, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco;
Dr. James B. Johnson, University of Idaho, Moscow; and Membership
Records of the Pacific Coast Entomological Society, San Francisco,
for providing the information that permitted the preparation of